Category: <span>Air Quality</span>

25 January 2021 Media Release: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring conducted in Louis Fourie Road Mossel Bay 

Media Release: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring conducted in Louis Fourie Road Mossel Bay 

For immediate release
25 January 2021

The stretch of the Louis Fourie Road between Hartenbos and Mossel Bay was identified as an Air Quality hotspot in the Garden Route District Municipality’s (GRDM) 3rd Generation Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP),  as a result of mobile emissions. This declaration was made based on estimate emissions, making use of traffic counts and international-based emission factors from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).

According to Dr Schoeman, GRDM Manager: Air Quality: “Based on the traffic counts obtained from the South African National Roads Agency Ltd (SANRAL), the highest traffic density in the Garden Route district is most probably experienced along the R102 provincial road between Hartenbos and Mossel Bay through the Voorbaai area. A total number of 9.5 million vehicles were counted during 2018”.

It is recommended in the AQMP that ambient air quality monitoring be undertaken to verify the estimated emissions and compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

From 5 January 2021 to 11 January 2021, the GRDM District Air Quality Unit commissioned its Zephyr mobile Air Quality monitoring station on Louis Fourie Road in Mossel Bay to verify the estimated emissions in the AQMP. Monitoring work was also intended to determine whether the stretch of road is indeed a hotspot.

“The results indicated periods of exceedances of the 24-hour average concentrations for both Sulphur dioxide (SO2) as well as Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 24-hour average concentrations as specified in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards,” said Dr Schoeman.  According to Dr Schoeman, the Zephyr monitoring station does not make use of reference methods for sampling, hence it is calibrated, and the results are highly accurate and therefore the perfect tool for screening purposes. The Zephyr was imported from the UK, who is using it extensively for more than five years to determine the impact of vehicle emissions in the greater Londen.

The exercise helps in creating awareness and to demonstrate that non-industrial activities also have an impact on ambient air quality.  The results will be discussed with Mossel Bay local municipality, which can be used as supplementary motivation to improve traffic flow along Louis Fourie road with the Provincial Roads directorate.

8 October 2020 Media Statement: Odour complaints in Mossel Bay receiving attention

Media Statement: Odour complaints in Mossel Bay receiving attention

For Immediate Release
8 October 2020

As part of an investigation about the offensive odour complaints in Mossel Bay, the Garden Route District Municipality (GRDM) Air Quality (AQ) and PetroSA convened a two-weekly meeting on odours in communities. The latest odours originate most likely from an oily effluent spill in the two storm-water dams on the refinery site. This incident was reported to the authorities and discussed in length at an engagement, followed by a media statement by PetroSA which addressed details of the incident. As part of the action list emanating from the meeting, GRDM visited the site and incident on the 6 October 2020. During the site visit the GRDM AQ Unit was joined by Mr Rudzani Makahane, Water Use Officer of the Breede-Gouritz Catchment Management Agency.

The oil spill into the storm water system was confirmed as signs of oil residue was visible in both the storm water ponds and the Blind River. There was a distinct pungent smell of hydrocarbons present at the ponds. Although, the GRDM is the Air Quality Licencing Authority for PetroSA, and offensive odours form part of air pollution, the primary origin of the odour is storm water. Thus, the primary source must be addressed in order to mitigate the air quality offensive odours (secondary matter).

The GRDM proposed that the incident needed to be addressed through a multi-sector approach by all applicable authorities. The case has also been referred to the Provincial Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning, as well as the National Department of Environmental Affairs and Fisheries (DEFF). The GRDM will continue to put pressure on the relevant authorities to act in terms of their respective jurisdictions.



28 August 2020 Media Release: Third Generation Western Cape Air Quality Management Plan Review

Media Release: Third Generation Western Cape Air Quality Management Plan Review

For Immediate Release
28 August 2020

The Western Cape Government, through the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning (DEA&DP), implements systems and provides an oversight role in the province with respect to air quality management. In line with Section 15 (1) of the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act (Act 39 of 2004) (NEM: AQA) Provinces and Municipalities are required to develop Air Quality Management Plans to manage air quality in their regions. For it to be effective, the AQMP needs to be reviewed every 5 years to establish whether the identified goals and targets have been effectively implemented.

In accordance with the NEM: AQA requirements, a Western Cape Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was first developed in 2010 to manage air quality in the Province. The 2010 Western Cape AQMP outlined the air quality management planning, monitoring and regulatory interventions, inclusive of assessing air quality impacts and characterizing the sources of pollution within the Western Cape Province.

The 2nd Generation Western Cape AQMP was built upon the strengths and successes of the 2010 Western Cape AQMP and was informed via formal Public Participation Process workshops during 2015 and adopted in 2016. The 2nd Generation AQMP mainly focused on strengthening the linkages between Air Quality Management and Climate Change Response, as well as spatial planning for growth and development in the Western Cape Province.
The 2nd Generation AQMP upholds the vision and the mission of the 2010 Western Cape AQMP which are as follows:


“Clean and healthy air for all in the Western Cape”


“To ensure the effective and consistent implementation of sustainable air quality management practices, by all spheres of government, relevant stakeholders and civil society to progressively achieve and efficiently maintain clean and healthy air in the Western Cape”


Four goals of the AQMP support the vision and mission, with each goal addressing the different aspects of the vision and are underpinned by objectives to achieve them. These are:

  • Goal 1 Ensure effective and consistent air quality management, linked to Climate Change Response
  • Goal 2 Continually engage with stakeholders to raise awareness with respect to Air Quality Management and Climate Change Response
  • Goal 3 Ensure effective and consistent compliance monitoring and enforcement
  • Goal 4 Support Air Quality and Climate Change Response programmes, including promoting and facilitating the reduction of Greenhouse gas emissions.

Following 5 years of the implementation of the 2nd Generation AQMP (2016-2020), the DEA&DP is extending an invitation and calling on all Interested and Affected Parties (I&AP’s) and authorities in the different regions of the Province to review the 2nd Generation AQMP. This first phase of the public participation review process will run from 3 August to 3 September 2020.

The review is to, inter alia:

  • Assess progress made in air quality management in the Province;
  • Establish whether the identified goals and targets have been effectively implemented;
  • Establish whether the goals and targets were still valid in terms of new developments and economic growth in the province; and
  • Identify potential air quality risks and interventions that can be translated into new goals and objectives, where required.

All I&APs and authorities are invited to participate in the first phase of the Public Participation Process, which will contribute towards the development of the 3rd Generation Western Cape AQMP.

Due to the current novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic, the Public Participation Process (PPP) cannot be undertaken through the known conventional methods. In compliance to the National Disaster Management Regulations, which prohibit social gatherings, the PPP will be conducted via two sets of questionnaires to the public and industry, respectively. The I&AP’s and authorities will be engaged through alternative platforms to ensure that the Public Participation Process of the 2nd Generation AQMP is far-reaching.

The links to the background document & questionnaires will be made available on the WCG website, Facebook and Twitter.
Please click on the links below to access and complete the questionnaire.

If you have any queries and should you wish to engage with the DEA&DP through any other virtual means (e.g. via MS Teams, Skype, Zoom), kindly contact:
Sally Benson:

22 July 2020 Media Release: New Mobile Air Quality Sensor for the Garden Route

Media Release: New Mobile Air Quality Sensor for the Garden Route

For Immediate Release
22 July 2020

The Garden Route District Municipality procured a new ambient air quality sensor for monitoring ambient air quality. The Zephyr® is a compact and lightweight ambient air pollution sensor that accurately measures harmful gases and particle matter.

​“Zephyr® sensors provide detailed air quality measurements in real-time to help identify pollution hotspots at a localised level such as busy road junctions, industrial activities and at area sources such as sewerage works, pumps station and stockpiles,” said Dr Johann Schoeman, GRDM Manager Air Quality Management.  The district might procure more sensors over time to be able to easily deploy district-wide analysis and optimisation of pollution-lowering initiatives. Ambient monitoring is a legislative requirement for District and Local municipalities and one of the objectives of the Garden Route 3rd Generation Air Quality Management Plan.

​Every unit is GPS enabled and can be used as a static or mobile sensor for while walking, cycling or driving.

Pollutants being measured

How it works

1. Power: Via a solar panel or DC power supply
2. Zephyr: Measures pollutants in the air in real-time
3. GSM: Built-in connection captures and sends data
4. SQL Database: Raw data is stored and calibrated
5. Upload Server: Data is authenticated and converted
6. Data access: Access and download your Zephyr data
7. MyAir: Access data via your online dashboard
8. API: Integrate data into an existing system

Every Zephyr® air quality sensor is calibrated prior to dispatch and its calibration performance is tested against reference standard analysers. Furthermore, every Zephyr® comes standard with a calibration certificate.

While the sensor is deployed, real time measurements can be accessed by the District Air Quality officers via a laptop, personal computer or cellular phone. This is extremely helpful especially when dealing with air quality complaints. Data is viewable in various formats such as excel spreadsheets, graphic formats or a dashboard. It can also be viewed as a snapshot, providing the user with  an overall view of the air quality in the current location, based on USEPA Air Quality indexes. GRDM already requested Earthsense, the manufacturer of Zephyr®, to adopt the index for our local conditions and to tweak the programme for South African National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

The sensor is currently located in the Mossel Bay region where it is used as a tool to assist with an air quality complaint. The Garden Route has various air quality hot-spots, as identified in the AQMP. Therefore, the sensor will be moved around in the District to obtain the necessary air quality status of each of the hot spots. This data is essential in order to mitigate and improve the general air quality of the region.

It is also the District’s goal to expand the ambient monitoring network so that each town has its own Zephyr® to assist in achieving the GRDM Air Quality vision “To have air quality worthy of the name Garden Route”.

For any further information, please contact Dr Johann Schoeman on: or 044 803 1300.


5 May 2020 Media Release: Effects of the National Lockdown on Air Quality within the Garden Route District

Media Release: Effects of the National Lockdown on Air Quality within the Garden Route District

For Immediate Release
5 May 2020

The major outdoor (ambient) air pollution contributors in the Garden Route district include industrial activities, vehicle emissions and wood burning for household purposes. Due to the current lock-down, only around 20% of these industries have rendered essential services, while vehicle movement decreased by estimate of between 10 and 25%.

According to the World Health Organisation (2013), ambient air pollution, as annual PM2.5, accounted for 3.1 million deaths and around 3.1% of global disability-adjusted life years and the health effects includes respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, such as aggravation of asthma and respiratory symptoms.

The lockdown has resulted in a reduction of some air pollutants across the district, but not all pollutants react as immediate as others, for instance, carbon monoxide is known to remain in the atmosphere for a couple of years. It is however estimated that there is a 6% global reduction in carbon dioxide emissions due to countries partially shutting down their economies.

As the cooler winter months, approaches some domestic emissions may increase in the informal residential areas, for example, particulate emissions from woodstoves and fires that are used for household purposes. According to experts, economic recovery will receive priority after the lockdown, even if it is to the detriment of the environment. It is therefore vital that authorities involved in air quality management must continue to strive towards a reduction in emissions.

Air quality in George appears to indicate a general decreasing trend in air pollution between 1 March and 27 April 2020 as seen in figures one and two. These results have undergone quality assurance and are compared with time average concentration limits in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for each criteria pollutant to determine any exceedances or non-compliances with standards.

Demonstrates a decrease in SO2 levels in George, 6µg/m3 to 4µg/m3
Demonstrates a decrease in O3 levels in George, from 12µg/m3 to 2.5 µg/m3

During the development of the GRDM 3rd Generation Air Quality Management Plan, ambient air quality modelling was undertaken in most of the towns in the district. Emissions from industrial activities and traffic were estimated and modelled to identify any possible air quality hotspots for further monitoring. Below are images of dispersion modelling with an estimated 10% of the vehicle data count before the national lock down in Knysna Central Business District and ambient emission with only one listed activity in operation during the NLD in Oudtshoorn.

The impact of industrial activities and vehicle emission are estimated by making use of emission factors obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and modelled by making use of dispersion modelling software.

The Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries has developed a country-specific Air Quality Index (AQI) in line with best international practices to simplify the reporting of air quality to the general public. This data can be viewed live by the general public at The AQI is derived from six (i.e. PM10, PM2.5, CO, O3, SO2 and NO2) criteria pollutants, for good air quality (scale 1) to hazardous (10) based on National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Currently, there are three Western Cape Government-owned ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the GRDM, viz. in Mossel Bay, George and Oudtshoorn. The George monitoring station reports live data to the South African Air Quality Information Systems (SAAQIS). The current status in terms of the AQI is one (1 = very good) in George, while for the entire country it is currently 3, which is also considered to be good.

According to satellite images below, obtained from (Copyright (c) 2020 Cameron Beccario 2020), there was a 48% reduction in ground level SO2 pollution on 22 April 2020, when compared with 28 April 2019. The same phenomenon occurred with PM10, which indicates a reduction of almost five times. This correlates well with international studies reported by the international media in respect of PM2,5 concentrations being four times lower than normally experienced in major polluted cities across the world.

Although there is a reduction in air pollution, the effect of air pollution is experienced over years. It is indeed so that the current improvement in air quality is too little over a short period of time to make a significant effect. However, people could again see clear skies over places where it was not possible for the last couple of years. The most valuable benefit therefore would be the awareness that flow from the visible improvement and the subsequent effect on people’s perceptions. The perceptions of affected communities is paramount for effective air quality management.

World Health Organisation, Health effects of particulate matter, 2013. Accessed, 30 April 2020.



  • Western Cape Government, Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning (Directorate: Air Quality Management)
  • Letabo Air Quality Specialists
  • South African Air Quality Information System (SAAQIS) –
  • Garden Route District Air Quality Unit
  • Dr Johann Schoeman, Manager: Air Quality Management, Garden Route DM

Issued by the Garden Route District Command Centre

Media Queries: Herman Pieters
Senior Communicator

Garden Route DM lends a helping hand to Industry

Above: Mr Angus Andries assists representatives from Johnsons Bricks, Vantell Bricks, Kurland Bricks, South Cape Galvanizing and Rheebok Bricks.

Every year the District Air Quality unit of Garden Route District Municipality (GRDM) assists Industrial companies in the Garden route region with the annual submission of their National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory System (NAEIS). GRDM held four workshops with Industries since January 2020.

“Industry sectors are clustered together in order for the District to assist them with the reporting of their 2019 emissions on the system,” said Dr Johann Schoeman, Manager: Air Quality Management.

He further added, “This is a legislative, and therefore, compulsory reporting in terms of the NAEIS Regulations. Each Listed Industry in the South Africa must report its emissions before 31 March on an annual basis.”

GRDM is the only district in the Western Cape that assists its industries in the form of workshops. This trend has continued over the past four (4) years at the GRDM sub-office in Mossel Bay. At the sessions, online questionnaires are completed and a 100% submission rate is always achieved.


The NAEIS system is an online reporting platform of emissions such as Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, Hydrogen sulphide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Particulate Matter, to name a few. It is important for industrial companies and the District to know what emission trends are in order to plan properly.

GRDM’s Air Quality Management Unit will not only continue to manage air quality in the district, but also assist industry with air quality-related matters. Clean air can ultimately only be achieved through a collaborative approach, which is why the District’s Air Quality vision, “To have air quality worthy of the name: Garden Route” is achieved and upheld.



Update on the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring: October 2019

The Garden Route District Municipality’s (GRDM) Air Quality Management Unit is pleased to announce that the futuristic robotic looking portable ambient air quality monitoring station has returned after repairs at Scentriod in Canada.

The Scentinal SL50 is used by the GRDM’s Air Quality Management Unit for high accuracy screening purposes as well as obtaining baseline information on ambient air quality in a specific air space in the vicinity of proposed new developments. The robot measures all meteorological parameters, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulphur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide, Total reduced sulphates and Amines, Methane, Volatile Organic Compounds and Particulate Matter with sizes of 1, 2.5 and 10 micron.  The equipment plays a pivotal role in managing air shed and determining the potential accumulative effects in a specific air shed.

The station was recently deployed to the Mossel Bay Harbour in order to obtain baseline information on the ambient air quality in the surrounding area.

The 3rd Generation Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was recently adopted during a council meeting. The AQMP identified potential air quality “hotspots” within the seven (7) municipalities in the region, by means of a dispersion modelling which make use of emission factors and mathematically simulate on how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. The aim of this study was to identify areas of concerns that exist outside the knowledge of the GRDM’s Air Quality Management Unit.

The possible areas of concern are:

  • Bitou: Particulate Matter (PM10)
  • Knysna: Nitrogen Dioxide
  • George: Particulate Matter (PM10)
  • Mossel Bay: Nitrogen Dioxide and odours
  • Oudtshoorn: Particulate Matter (PM10), Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide

Following the identification of the potential areas of concern and pursuing objective 1.5 of the GRDM’s 3rd Generation AQMP, which task the Air Quality Unit to “Initiate and coordinate short-term air quality monitoring projects (where applicable) to verify the dispersion modelling results in potential problem areas”, monitoring will commence in the Knysna, to verify the effect of vehicle emissions in the Main Road of the tourist town.

99-percentile NO2 concentrations along Main Road in Knysna.  Burgundy coloured regions show areas where the air quality standard of 200 µg/m3 may potentially be exceeded.

Subsequent to the Knysna monitoring run, the Scentinal Station will be move to the other areas of concern, namely Bitou and Oudtshoorn.  There are continuous emissions monitoring stations in the George-, Mossel Bay- and Oudtshoorn municipal areas, and the focus will therefore be in regions where there is no permanent monitoring site.


District learners educate in Air Quality

Since 2011 the Garden Route District Municipality’s District Air Quality Unit embarked on air quality awareness relating to clean fires, called the Garden Route Clean Fire Campaign. Ongoing projects were identified due to life-threatening air quality incidents in especially informal settlements, caused by fires used for household purposes, such as cooking and heating. Awareness sessions advanced whereby Peers are trained as educators to teach the community on proper fire making methods and the dangers of air pollution.

Recently, the awareness sessions further extended to a level whereby the Department of Education allowed the Air Quality Project to be incorporated into the curriculum of Grade 3 learners in the Garden Route. This approach ensures that the project reach all grade three learners, making a major impact in raising awareness about air quality.

Following a tender process for the development of study material and the actual roll-out and training of the Grade 3 teachers, the tender for three years was awarded to Mingcele Africa.

During the week of 13 to 17 May 2019, the roll-out of the Clean Fires Programme commenced in the Klein Karoo (Oudtshoorn and Kannaland) region, as this is a significant target group, since most of these communities use wood for heating purposes during the cold winter months.

Mingcele arranged with the Department Education to reach all Primary Schools in the Klein Karoo and Kannaland region. Schools in the following towns were reached: Oudtshoorn, De Rust, Dysselsdorp, Avontuur, Haarlem, Calitzdorp, Uniondale and Ladismith. A blended learning approach was followed.  Blended learning is the use of face-to-face interaction, physical resources, eLearning, eResources, collaboration (WhatsApp) and social media platforms. Thirty-seven (37) schools were individually visited, interacting with teachers took place and study material was handed over to seventy two (72) grade three teachers.   The schools form part of the Eden-Karoo Education District, circuit 5 and 6.

The curriculum of the programme covers the following aspects of Air Pollution, namely:

  • What is air pollution (grade 3 Curriculum and Assessment Policy)
  • Types of pollutions (grade 3 Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements)
  • Air pollution and my family
  • Pollution and the environment
  • Pollution and people

Teachers received the Garden Route District Municipality Grade 3 Pollution Pack, as well as a face-to-face overview of the Programme and the eLearning platform by the Mingcele Africa team. The final steps of the programme will include:

  • WhatsApp week for the next two months until pollution implementation starts according to CAPS.
  • eCourse enrolment by grade three teachers.
  • Completion of eCourse by grade three teachers.
  • Receiving of Pollution Course certificate.

This is a unique programme and known to be the first of its kind for raising air pollution awareness in South Africa. By reaching 72 Grade 3 educators with an average classroom of 35 learners which mean 2520 learners are reached. The learners on the other hand will educate their respective families as part of the programme, with a cumulative effect to reach at least 12 600 community members.

As part of the programme, teachers have to submit a portfolio of evidence, ensuring that there is control over the project and constant evaluation of the successful completion of the Clean Fire pollution programme. The programme is also enrolled as a continuous Development Activity (CPD) for teachers and they will receive CPD credits for the project. In the months to come, the programme will be further rolled out to ultimately reach all schools in the Garden Route district.






Bergsig Primary School

Bongulethu Primary School

Uniondale High School

No Arsenic found at Geelhoutvlei Timbers

During the George veldt fires end of last year, Geelhoutvlei Timbers situated in Karatara, was almost completely destroyed. This tragic incident raised fears that Arsenic-treated wood stored on the premises could contaminate the water sources in the immediate surroundings.

Geelhoutvlei Timbers reacted pro-actively and contained the Chromated Copper Arsenate used at their treatment plant. Surrounding residents still feared that the locations where the treated timber were stored could downwash into the nearby water sources. In order to determine if this fears are justified, the Garden Route District Municipality Air Quality Unit took representative samples for independent laboratory analysis on 17 January 2019. Outcomes of tests done were made available to GRDM on 14 February 2019.

It was confirmed that both water and soil arsenic samples took at various sampling points comply with the Total Concentration (TC) threshold for arsenic expressed as mg/kg or mg/l.


Four samples were taken, of which the results are as follow:

·         Sample 1 – Karatara cement bridge – <0.001mg/l

·         Sample 2 – 1st dam on Geelhoutvlei Timbers premises – <0.001mg/l

·         Sample 3 – De Wit dam – <0.001mg/l

·         Sample 4 – Hoogekraal bridge – <0.001mg/l

RESULT: Detection limits are 0.001mg/l and which is an indication that Arsenic was not detected in the water.


Three soil samples were taken at all the points where treated wood were stored on the Geelhoutvlei Timbers premises:

·         Sample 5 – Treated Timber area: 8.64mg/kg

·         Sample 6 – Pole Yard-East- <0.20mg/kg

·         Sample 7 – Front pole yard- 3mg/kg

RESULT: The Total Concentration (TC) threshold for Arsenic is 500mg/kg.

Chemtech laboratory used the Draft Standard for assessment of waste for landfill disposal as reference for thresholds.

Google images of the sampling points

The Garden Route DM Air Quality Unit is in the process to ensure that the contained arsenic on the premises is disposed of at an approved hazardous waste landfill site (if not done already).

For more information with regard to the above matter, contact:

Dr Johann Schoeman
Manager: District Air Quality Control
Tel: +27 (0)44 693 0006 | +27 (0)84 317 9167

Air Quality officials contribute to workshop held at NMU

The Sub-directorate:  Environmental Law Enforcement (Region 3), George of the Provincial Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning recently requested the Air Quality unit of Garden Route District Municipality, to do a presentation at the George Campus of Nelson Mandela University (NMU), as part of their annual Structural Practical Workshop.

Dr Johann Schoeman, District Manager for Air Quality Officer at Garden Route District Municipality, during his presentation to the students.
Student listen attentively to the presentation made by Mr Angus Andries, District Air Quality Officer, at Garden Route District Municipality

The Air Quality Unit was invited for the purpose to share information and educate the NMU second year students registered on the University’s Forestry and Wood Technology programme, on the basic Environmental Law and Management Principles.

This year, the Air Quality Unit once again partook in the session. Dr Johann Schoeman, the District Air Quality Manager, and Mr Angus Andries, the District Air Quality Officer from Garden Route District Municipality, presented the topics ‘Introduction to Air Quality Management,’ as well as ‘Atmospheric Emissions Licencing and the roles and responsibilities of the emission control officers in the Wood Drying industry’.

The presentations were well received and the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning commended the Garden Route District Municipality for their input at the workshop.